Dienstag, 13.11.2018 16:56 Uhr

Made in China 2025

Verantwortlicher Autor: Carlo Marino Rome, 08.11.2018, 13:08 Uhr
Kommentar: +++ Politik +++ Bericht 1550x gelesen

Rome [ENA] China’s impressive plan to build one of the world’s most advanced and competitive economies with the help of innovative manufacturing technologies (“smart manufacturing”) seems to be a reality. Made in China 2025 aims at a long term at exactly the strategy of substitution. China seeks to progressively replace foreign with Chinese technology at home – and to prepare the ground for Chinese technology companies

entering international markets. The Chinese strategy targets practically all high-tech industries that vigorously contribute to economic growth in advanced economies: automotive, aviation, machinery, robotics, high-tech maritime and railway equipment, energy-saving vehicles, medical devices and information technology to name only a few. Countries in which these high-tech industries contribute a large share of economic growth are most vulnerable to China’s plans, such as Germany.

China’s industrial master plan “Made in China 2025” aims to turn the country into a “manufacturing superpower” over the coming decades. If efficacious, this industrial policy will challenge the economic primacy of the current leading economies, especially within Europe. The political stimulus for industrial modernization in China creates an enormous demand for smart manufacturing products like industrial robots, smart sensors, wireless sensor networks and radio frequency identification chips.

The promotion and dissemination of smart manufacturing technology is the centrepiece of the strategy, borrowing from the German concept of Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet created in the United States. By improving the mostly backward industrial processes of China’s manufacturing sector, the Chinese government hopes to boost the competitiveness of its enterprises internationally, but also on domestic markets. For many foreign enterprises, this provides, at short term, highly attractive business opportunities. In fact, the renovation of China’s manufacturing base requires advanced technologies that Chinese suppliers are not able to provide at their current technological level.

In order to act in response to these challenges, the EU and the Member States need to improve their industrial policies, mainly the ability to react to state-led acquisitions of high-tech enterprises. The European Union also needs to analyze closely whether China's technology substitution policy violates WTO stipulations. And most significantly, the EU needs to extend cyber-security dialogues with China and should consider to implement a targeted industrial policy focusing on Europe's cyber-defence industry.

There’s a growing economic nationalism in China indeed, and in addition to the international standards there are also national ones, and thereby creating incompatibilities for foreign investors on Chinese markets. This is a kind of selective protectionism in certain areas. In the context of the missing bottom-up approach, one has to inquire about the incentives to correct the creation of overcapacities under this strategy, as e.g. in the robot sector and put cyber security as a top priority. China has in conclusion the advantage of a bigger market and faster decision making due to its political regime.

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